Madeline Hunter’s ITIP model for direct instruction

Here’s an interesting look at direct instruction.

1. Anticipatory Set or Set Induction: Create a “hook” to grab the student’s attention: actions and statements by the teacher should relate the experiences of the students to the objectives of the lesson. The goal is to put students into a receptive frame of mind.

2. Lesson Objective: Describe what is to be learned and why it matters. Create an organizing framework for the ideas, principles, or information that is to follow.

3. Input: Provide the information (in logical order) needed for students to gain the knowledge or skill through lecture, film, video, pictures, interactive media, etc.

4. Modeling: Once the material has been presented, the teacher uses it to show students examples of what is expected as an end product of their work. The critical aspects are explained through labeling, categorizing, comparing, etc. Students are taken to the application level (problem-solving, comparison, summarizing, etc.).

5. Checking for Understanding: Determination of whether students have “got it” before proceeding. Asking questions that go beyond mere recall to probe for the higher levels of understanding…to ensure memory network binding and transfer. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives provides a structure for questioning that is hierarchical and cumulative.

6. Guided Practice: It is essential that students practice doing it right so the teacher must know that students understand before proceed to practice. If there is any doubt that the class has not understood, the concept/skill should be retaught before practice begins. Provide feedback to students.

7. Independent Practice: Once students have mastered the content or skill, it is time to provide for reinforcement practice. It is provided on a repeating schedule so that the learning is not forgotten. It may be home work or group or individual work in class.

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